Refractive surgery

The aim of refractive surgery is to reduce a person’s dependence on glasses and contact lenses. This is achieved by treating near sightedness (myopia), far sightedness (hyperopia), and/or astigmatism.

Most refractive surgery techniques rely on altering the shape of the cornea, the transparent outer layer on the front of the eye. The cornea serves as a fixed-focus lens. As the cornea is responsible for about two-thirds of the eye’s focusing power, vision can be improved by permanent reshaping of the cornea. The kind of reshaping required depends on the eye condition being treated.

Some patients may require replacing the natural lens of the eye due to their correction.

Refractive surgery does not enable perfect vision for every patient. Some patients may still need weak prescription glasses or contact lenses. In some cases, results can be modified by further treatment.

Refractive eye surgery - types

There are different types of vision correction surgeries. Based on your eye examination, your eye doctor may recommend any of the following surgeries to improve your vision:

SMILE (Small incision lenticule extraction) Is a surgery useful in correcting near sightedness (myopia), with or without small to moderate amounts of astigmatism. A small piece of tissue (lenticule) is created inside the cornea with the laser and removed through a small incision. Minimally invasive means there is minimal corneal tissue intervention. The upper layers of the cornea are unaffected. SMILE offers the potential for preserved biomechanical stability of the eye and fast healing.

SMILE is a flapless procedure, and therefore no flap related complications., as a result, corneal sensitivity, for the most part, is quickly recovered. visual recovery, in general, is fast.

LASIK (Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis) Is a laser surgery useful in correcting vision abnormalities such as near sightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia) and/or astigmatism. During LASIK surgery, a flap is created in the outer layer of the cornea. This flap provides access to the underlying tissue of the cornea, which is reshaped to make the cornea focus light onto the retina. The computer imaging known as Wavefront Technology may also be used along with LASIK to obtain detailed images of the cornea and manoeuvre the treatment to a precise area

PRK (Photorefractive keratectomy) Is a laser surgery useful in correcting mild to moderate near sightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), and/or astigmatism. During PRK surgery, an excimer laser removes the epithelium then remodels the cornea based on the refractive error programmed into the laser. A temporary contact lens is used as a bandage lens to improve comfort until the epithelium grows back. Wavefront Technology may also be used along with PRK.

LASEK (Laser epithelial keratomileusis) is a laser surgery useful in correcting near sightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia) and/or astigmatism. During a LASEK surgery, an epithelial flap is created. An alcohol solution is used to loosen the epithelial cells, and the laser is used to reshape the cornea. A soft contact lens is used to replace and secure the flap while it heals.

RLE (Refractive lens exchange), also known as clear lens extraction, is a surgery to correct extreme farsightedness (hyperopia) or near sightedness (myopia)

PRELEX (Presbyopic lens exchange) is a corrective surgery for presbyopia. Presbyopia is caused due to the loss of elasticity of the eye’s lens resulting in reduced ability of the eye to focus on near objects. During PRELEX, a multifocal lens is used to replace the natural lens of the eye, since the natural lens of the eye is removed, patients won’t go onto develop cataracts.

ICL (Implantable collamer lens) is an implantable lens that works with the natural lens of your eye to improve vision. It is inserted between your Iris and your natural lens through a small incision.

Intacs also known as intrastromal corneal ring or intracorneal ring is a procedure used today to improve the astigmatic correction for patients with Keratoconus or irregular cornea. A femtosecond laser creates a channel with a small incision on the surface of the cornea, a small shaped polymer is inserted into the cornea. The embedding of the rings flattens the cornea, changing the focus of the light passing through the cornea to the retina.

Phakic intraocular lens implants: are designed specifically to correct near sightedness (myopia). It is called phakic due to the eyes natural lens left untouched.

AK (Astigmatic keratotomy) is a surgical procedure to correct moderate to large amounts of astigmatism. Incisions are made at the steepest point of the cornea, with an aim to course a flattening effect.

Epi-LASIK is a procedure similar to PRK. A very thin membrane is detached from the cornea, and the cornea is reshaped by the excimer laser. A soft contact lens is used to protect the area until healing occurs. TransPRK smooth SurfACE has replaced this treatment as a more beneficial treatment associated with a faster recovery.

RK (Radial keratotomy) is a surgical procedure to correct near sightedness. RK is rarely performed, due to the availability of more effective laser techniques for vision correction.


At the time of your consultation relevant complications will be discussed in detail.


At the time of your consultation we review your eye health by completing a thorough ocular health check. After the testing phase of the consultation, we will discuss the best surgical option that will achieve your ideal visual outcome.

Together we discuss what your realistic expectations should be and how we can achieve the best possible outcome.